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First Aid & Emergencies

Call 911 NOW if you are having:

→ Chest Pain → Difficulty Breathing → Severe Bleeding → Sudden Weakness or Numbness → A Medical Emergency

2010-CPR-Guidelines

Some Basics of First Aid Caregiving:

BLEEDING

Before providing care, put on protective gloves or use a barrier between you and the victim, to reduce the chance of disease transmission while assisting the injured person. Cleanse your hands thoroughly with soap and water when finished.

Basic first aid treatment:

  • CALL 911 for medical assistance.
  • Keep victim lying down.
  • Apply direct pressure using a clean cloth or sterile dressing directly on the wound.
  • DO NOT take out any object that is lodged in a wound; see a doctor for help in removal.
  • If there are no signs of a fracture in the injured area, carefully elevate the wound above the victim's heart.
  • Once bleeding is controlled, keep victim warm by covering with a blanket, continuing to monitor for shock.

CLEANING & BANDAGING WOUNDS

  • Wash your hands and cleanse the injured area with clean soap and water, then blot dry.
  • Apply antibiotic ointment to minor wound and cover with a sterile gauze dressing or bandage that is slightly larger than the actual wound.

EYE INJURIES

  • If an object is impaled in the eye, CALL 911 and DO NOT remove the object.
  • Cover both eyes with sterile dressings or eye cups to immobilize.
  • Covering both eyes will minimize the movement of the injured eye.
  • DO NOT rub or apply pressure, ice, or raw meat to the injured eye.
  • If the injury is a black eye, you may apply ice to cheek and area around eye, but not directly on the eyeball itself.
How to flush the eyes: If chemical is in only one eye, flush by positioning the victim's head with the contaminated eye down. . . to prevent flushing the chemical from one eye to another. Flush with cool or room temperature water for 15 minutes or more. Remove contact lenses after flushing.

BURNS

First Degree Burn: Skin will appear red and may be swollen or painful. Generally does not require medical attention.
Second Degree Burn: Skin will appear red, blistered and swollen. May require medical attention.
Third Degree Burn: Skin will be visibly charred and may be white. Usually very painful. REQUIRES MEDICAL ATTENTION.
Basic first aid treatment for 1st degree & some 2nd degree burns:
Submerge burn area immediately in cool water until pain stops. If affected area is large, cover with cool wet cloths. Do not break blisters if they are present. If pain persists but no medical assistance is needed, apply medicated first aid cream or gel and cover with sterile dressing. If medical attention is needed, do not apply any cream. Just cover with a dry, sterile dressing and seek medical help immediately. basic first aid treatment for 3rd degree & some 2nd degree burns: CALL 911!! Third degree burns MUST RECEIVE MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY! DO NOT try to remove any clothing stuck to the burned area. Cover with sterile dressing or clean sheet. DO NOT apply any creams or gels.

CHEMICAL BURNS

  • Flush the affected area with cool running water for at least 15 minutes.
  • Remove all clothing and jewelry that has been contaminated.
  • Monitor victim for shock and seek medical assistance.
  • If chemical burn is in the eyes, flush continuously with water and seek medical attention immediately.

SUNBURN

  • Avoid any further exposure to direct sunlight.
  • Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration.
  • Do not apply cold water or ice to a severe burn.
  • Use over-the-counter remedies to remove discomfort.
  • If burn is severe and blisters develop, seek medical attention.

UNCONSCIOUSNESS

  • Check the victim’s for responsiveness
  • Do not leave an unconscious victim alone except to call 911 for medical help.
  • If the victim is unresponsive, perform CPR. IMPORTANT: only a trained & qualified person should administer Full CPR or untrained personnel should admister Compression-Only CPR™. (See image)
  • Bystander / Adult, Child & Infant CPR
  • Adult, Child & Infant CPR step sequence for CPR trained "bystander" rescuers will change from "A-B-C" (Airway, Breathing, Chest compressions) to "C-A-B" (Chest compressions, Airway, Breathing) for adults and pediatric patients (children and infants, excluding newborns). American CPR has implemented C.A.R.E. CPR™ as shown below - easier to learn & remember!
  • Defibrillation and use of AEDs remains a vital part of the lifesaving sequence.

Also applies to Advanced/Healthcare CPR.Bystander / One rescuer Adult, Child & Infant CPR will no longer include the step to "Look, Listen and Feel" Also applies to Advanced/Healthcare CPR. A compression rate of 100+ per minute. Also applies to Advanced/Healthcare CPR. Adult chest compression depth: push down on the adult breastbone at least 2 inches (5 cm). Also applies to Advanced/Healthcare CPR.

  • "Don't Stress... Compress!"™All trained rescuers should provide chest compressions for victims of cardiac arrest. In addition, if the trained rescuer is able to perform rescue breaths, compressions and breaths should be provided in a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths, averaging 100+ compressions per minute.
    But... If a trained rescuer cannot perform the rescue breaths, or a bystander is not trained in CPR, the bystander should provide compression-only CPR for the adult victim who suddenly collapses, with 100+ rapid and firm compressions in the center of the chest.
    Whenever available, follow the directions of the EMS/911 dispatcher.
    As always, a rescuer should relinquish care to any better prepared or trained rescuer, while remaining to assist and assure quality of care.
  • Cover the victim with blanket to keep warm and prevent shock. If victim communicates feeling warm, remove blanket.

CHOKING

  • Ask the victim, "Are you OK?"
  • do not interfere or give first aid if the victim can speak, breathe, or cough.
  • If the victim cannot speak, breathe, or cough, ask for someone to call 911 and then perform the Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrust).
  • How to perform the Heimlich maneuver: Position yourself behind the victim with your arms around victim’s stomach. Place the thumb-side of your fist above the victim’s navel and below the lower end of the breastbone. Take hold of your fist with your free hand and pull fist upward and in, quickly and firmly. Continue with thrusts until the object is dislodged or airway is clear.

INFANT CHOKING

  • Place infant face down on your forearm supporting the head and neck with your hand. Rest your hand on your knee with the infant’s head lower than it’s body.
  • With the heel of your hand give four blows between the infant’s shoulder blades.
  • Turn infant over, place two fingers on the center of the infant’s chest (just below the nipples) and perform up to five chest thrusts.
  • Repeat until obstruction is clear.
  • seek medical attention after any choking incident, since complications may arise.

POISON

  • Call your local Poison Control Center or 911 for immediate medical attention.
  • Antidotes on labels may be wrong!! do not follow them unless instructed by a physician.
  • never give anything by mouth (milk, water, Ipecac, etc.) until you have consulted with a medical professional.
  • Keep a one ounce bottle of Ipecac on hand at all times in case of an emergency, and give only when instructed by a physician.
  • If the poison is on the skin, flush skin with water for 15 minutes, then wash and rinse with soap and water.
  • If poison is in the eye, flush with lukewarm water for 15 minutes. Adults can stand under the shower with eyes open. always consult medical professionals after any eye injury has occurred.

ANIMAL BITES

  • Control any bleeding by applying direct pressure or with elevation.To avoid risk of infection, do not close wound.
  • Rinse the bite thoroughly, holding it under running water. Cleanse with soap and water and hold under water again for five minutes.
  • do not put ointments or medicines on wound. Cover with dry sterile bandage or gauze.
  • seek medical assistance immediately.
  • note: report animal and human bites to local police and/or health authorities.

BEE STING

  • If possible, remove stinger by scraping it off with a blunt edge (e.g. credit card).
  • Clean wound and apply cold compress to reduce swelling.
  • Remove tight clothing and jewelry from areas near the bite in case swelling occurs.
  • Watch for signs of shock or allergic reaction. Signs include swelling or itching at the wound site, dizziness, nausea or difficulty breathing. Seek medical attention immediately if any of these signs occur.
  • Continue monitoring victim for shock until medical help arrives.
  • Check victim’s Airway, Breathing, and Circulation (ABC’s). If ABC’s are impaired then call 911 and begin CPR. IMPORTANT: only a trained & qualified person should administer CPR.

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